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Introduction

 

            Anxiety and Anxiety disorders is a broad topic which spans a large number of disorders. It is a topic that has been around for centuries. In the earliest interpretations of anxiety disorders, analyses tend to be spiritually based. These spiritual approaches to anxiety disorders are similar to modern anxiety in that the use of natural substances resembles modern pharmaceutical practices. Medical explanation of anxiety disorders is not a recent practice either; it goes as far back and the Greek empire. While the fundamental aspects are not new it has have been redefined over the years.

            Anxiety is a psychological and biological response to stress. The term is usually defined as a ‘defused, vague, very unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension’ (Sarason & Sarason, 2002). Anxiety is functional in normal amounts as it is a warning to prepare for upcoming events or situation, too little anxiety can produce terrible consequences, as the individual is not prepared for the dangerous situation. However having too much anxiety is classified as a mental disorder.  Someone suffering from anxiety disorder will be constantly tense and full of worry, making them unable to function at their best physical, mentally or socially.

Anxiety and its disorders can be broken down into five major categories. Depending on symptoms we can determine which particular disorder the patient is experiencing. These five categories are: Generalised Anxiety, Panic Disorder, Phobic Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Santrock, 2000).

            In Generalised Anxiety the person has anxiety attacks not related to any one particular reason. They are anxious constantly, so much that they worry about routine circumstances in their everyday life. Persons who suffer generalised anxiety are hyper vigilant in that they keep constant watch for threats in their immediate surroundings, making them tense and easily startled.

            A panic attack is an intense, overpowering surge of fear. They play an integral role in Panic Disorder, which is described as the recurrent and unexpected panic attacks and at least one month of persistent concern over having them again. Although they are similar to generalised anxiety they are differentiated by their rate of occurrence and level of intensity.

Phobic Disorders is a state of mind in which an individual has a specific fear related to person, situation, place or thing, that evokes and severe response whenever it is encountered. Generally phobic people are physically they are fine and do not engage in gross distortion of reality, but the fear attached to the person, place or thing is beyond rational proportions.

            In Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, people persistently experience certain intrusive thoughts or images (obsessions) or feels compelled to perform certain behaviour (compulsion). Obsessions may include unwanted thoughts about inadvertently poising others or injuring a pedestrian while driving. Common compulsions include repetitive hand washing or such mental acts as repeated counting.

Post Traumatic stress disorder sometimes occurs after people experience traumatic or catastrophic events, such as physical or sexual abuse, natural disasters, accidents and wars. People with this disorder relive the traumatic experience through recurrent dreams or intrusive memories called flashback.

The focus of this paper however, is to give a detailed presentation on both anxiety in general and phobias in particular. We will look at the treatment for both areas as well as how anxiety and phobias can be describe in the Caribbean.


Anxiety

Overview

The work anxiety is derived form the Latin word “angere” meaning to choke or strangle. According to Shand and McDougall, anxiety—in and of itself—is a sign of life.

They reject the common perception that it is a clear indicator of some mental disorder (Rycroft, 1968). This stems from the fact that it results in increased alertness, enabling the individual to anticipate danger hence preparing the body for action (Agras, 1985). However, if anxiety has been arouse too late for the individual to take the appropriate action to avoid the stimulus then fright occurs. Anxiety progresses from first being calm and oblivious to danger, to taking note of the threat then finally, to taking action

 

Anxiety in Situational Context

Anxiety is such a common experience that one would be disinclined to believe anyone who claimed to be immune to it. But is precise nature and functions are by no means self-evident. Its situation context may include apprehension, concern and the future, alertedness and vigilance, signal and separation (Rycroft, 1968).

In terms of apprehensiveness, anxiety is associated with a fear. For example if someone feels apprehensive in crowds he will try to avoid them. If he is in one, he wishes and tries to escape. Such a person feels that if he is caught in a crowd he will be crushed or assaulted. Fears of this kind are indeed almost universal in childhood, and most adults will admit to having dislikes and distastes that makes them somewhat uneasy, but yet they cannot explain them.

            Concern speaks towards worrying about the unknown usually the future. Therefore an individual with concern-based anxiety is not anxious about what has happened or even about what is happening, but about what may take place. For example, a man who is concern about his sister’s heart surgery, he constantly worries about how she will fair during and after the procedure. In cases like these anxious concern is adaptive and justifiable.

            Alertedness is a conscious state of preparing for a potentially dangerous encounter. For example, a hiker would be on high alert when trekking through snake-infested areas. Though he does not fear the reptile, he is aware of the dangers they pose and simply seeks to prevent an encounter, thus his heightening vigilance (Rycroft, 1968).

Signal anxiety is the response to the expectation of impending danger. It is closely linked with alertedness

Separation anxiety occurs when children are separated from their parents especially mothers.

 

Symptoms—The Body’s and Brain’s Reaction

Anxiety occurs when individuals are unable to predict or control situations that may seem threatening of dangerous. These feelings all begin with small brain cells called neuron with their complex interconnections. Disruptions in the way these cells transmit information can occur. Electrical impulses pass through cell bodies and axons to other cells via the dendrites. Cells bodies are bathed in a potassium and sodium mix. Messages are also transported chemically whereby neurotransmitters are synthesised and released into the synaptic cleft where they fit into specific receptor site and exact change. The left over neurochemical transmitters are then reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic membrane, broken down and re-synthesised for further use. This is the process by which we are cued to behave, however sometimes there is a breakdown that results in an altering of normal behaviour.  Sometimes, there is too much enzyme to breakdown the transmitters causing an their undersupply. Too little enzyme could have the opposite effect causing the transmitters to overreact. Either altering of the communication process between cells can result in behavioural abnormalities sometimes anxiety attacks.

            This neurochemical process displays its self in the following physical manners: fidgeting, muscle tension, sleep deprivation, headaches, rapid heartbeats and palpitations, sweating increase blood pressure, nausea, dizziness, breathing problems, cognitive difficulties and hypersensitivity (Sarason & Sarason, 2002).

 

Treatment

The first category of prescribed methods used to treat anxiety is Selective Seratonin Reuptake inhibitors (S.S.R.I’s). They operate by blocking the left over Seratonin (an important neurocheminal in cell communication) in the synaptic gap from re-entering the pre-synaptic membrane. These are only used to treat sever cases of anxiety disorders particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder. Zoloft and Paxil are common types of S.S.R.I. (Santrock, 2000).
            Benzodiazepines, commonly known as tranquillizers, are the second category of drugs.  They work by binding the neurotransmitters that become over reactive during anxiety (Santrock, 2000). This depresses the central nervous system, making the individual less excitable and by extension reduces the anxious state. They are deemed less safe than S.S.R.Is because of their addictive nature. The body can become tolerant to a particular dosage and increasingly it craves more. If the body’s desire dosage is not satisfied then this could spell the onset of an anxiety attack. In this regard the drug becomes counterproductive. Commonly prescribed benzodiazepines are Xanax (Alprazolam), Valium (Dizepan), and Librium (Chlrodiazepoxide) (Atkinson et al, 1990).

Systematic Desensitisation is the standard behavioural and non-drug therapy for anxiety suffers. Formulated by Joseph Wolpe, in 1948, it requires that an anxiety hierarchy be created and as the patient moves up this hierarchy, he engages in behaviour that directly conflicts with the anxiety. If at any point on the hierarchy the patient exhibits anxiety they practice relaxation and return to the previous point on the hierarchy. By reconditioning the patient to associated deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety producing situations, an adaptive behaviour is substituted for a maladaptive one (Liebert & Liebert, 1998; Santrock, 2000). This is often practiced when examination anxiety begins to creep up. The student practices relaxing as he moves from a month before the test to the day of the test, so by the day of the examine the student is able to perform at his best.

Relaxation techniques employed include calming breaths—where the individual slowly breathes in and out through their nose and relax their entire body on the out breath, relaxing the tension held in their anxiety points—and or listening to nature sounds such as flowing water and music while thinking soothing thoughts, example a favourite place time or event.

In vivo exposure is a variation of systematic desensitisation. Instead of imagining the aversive stimuli the patient faces the actual stimuli. It allows the patient to carry out this process in familiar environment and as such can be more effective than imagine exposures (Liebert & Liebert, 1998). The therapist must be very careful which patients and at what point he selects them for in vivo exposure. If not handled carefully the overwhelming nature of the situation can send the patient into shock.

The decision to use drug or non-drug treatment will depend on the individual’s anxiety level. Those of the lower level are best-treated using relaxation methods. However more advance anxiety patients with whom relation techniques have failed are better treated with drugs.

It is up to the physician to monitor his patient’s progress and determine the extensiveness of therapy. He decides if they are to be promoted from relaxation techniques to drug therapy, or for those already on drug treatment, if the dosage is to be lowered or raised.


Phobias

Overview

            Michelle’s test was situated on the third floor and she needed to get there immediately. However, Michelle dreaded the fact that her test was on the third floor and was in no hurry to get there. She had plastered herself onto the wall, breathing heavily and slowly taking each step as if she was marching to her death sentence. It took some serious persuasion to convince her to climb to the third floor, even though she knew how important her test was. Such a relatively simple task was/ is difficult for Michelle because she is acrophobic—a person who fear heights.

            Michelle is not alone. There are many who share her crippling fear of height and other stimuli. The National Institute for Mental Health has estimated that between 5.1% and 12.1% of the American population experience this crippling responses to one stimuli or the other. Phobias are ‘extreme, severe and persistent’ irrational fear that compels the individual to avoid the specific object or situation that cues their/this disproportionate response (Internet Mental Health, October 2002). Simply put phobia is  ‘acute anxiety’ (Lader & Marks, 1971, p. 5).  The world is derived form the Greek god of fear “Phobos” who provoked panic; and as such his likeness was painted on masks and shields to frighten enemies.

Phobias are present in all societies with very little discrimination; in fact there are only two demographic distinctions, that women and young adults are more prone to phobic disorders than any other group. Phobias can be developed towards anything and everything; the only requirement is that the stimulus conjures up intense, disproportionate fear within the individual.

 

Types of Phobias

            On the Diagnostic of Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Four (DSM—IV), Phobic Disorders are given as one of the five sub-divisions under Anxiety Disorder Classification. Phobic disorders are further divided into three broad categories: a) Agoraphobia, b) Social Phobia and c) Specific Phobia.

            Agorapghobia is characterised by an intense fear of ‘entering crowded, public places, of travelling away from home, especially by public transportation, of feeling confined or trapped, and of being separated from a place or person associated with safety’ (Santrock, 2000, p. 457).

            Social Phobia is described as the fear of being evaluated, judged or criticized by others; in essence it is a state of fearing any situation in which others may be involved. (Least understood fear, triumph over fear). Simple activities such as a walk in the park can be terrifying to the social phobic. Though he recognizes that this mental state has no real basis, he cannot shake the feeling he is constantly being judged, which in his mind is the worse possible scenario.

            Unlike the general nature of social phobias—which encompass any interpersonal situation—specific or simple phobias are those that are limited to a particular situation and stimulus. Stimuli range from as small as cockroaches to enormous skyscrapers and situation vary from eating and dentistry to the use of public facilities (Internet Mental Health, October 2002).

Absolutely anything and everything can evoke a phobic response as they run the full gamut of human activity. In the general population, common fears are those of heights (acrophobia), darkness (myctophobia), animals—including snakes (ophidiophobia) and spiders (arachnophobia)—and flying (aviophobia). However in psychiatric practice the most common are agoraphobia and social phobia (Lader & Marks, 1971). This is, as they tend to be most restrictive prompting individual to seek profession help. Phobias are not mutually exclusive, as one can lead to the development of others. For example, a social phobic may develop agoraphobia simply because his fear of people has limited him to ‘safe area’ that he is unwilling to branch out of.

 

Symptoms—The Body’s and Brain’s Reaction

            In the brain, as with anxiety, phobic episodes take place when the regular neurochemical processes are interfered with, manifesting in some tell-tale physical signs. In the many phobic episodes, individuals undergo some of the same symptoms that befall someone suffering rational anxiety, only that they are usually more intense and are often compounded by others that are more closely related to phobia. These are an intense feeling of terror, shortness of breath or hyperventilation, trembling and poor motor control, chest pains, chocking, vomiting and a sudden feeling of illness and extreme measures taken to avoid the feared situation and or an overwhelming desire to flee, in other words absolute panic.

The degree and duration of all symptoms are person specific. For some it may last only as long as the aversive stimulus is in close proximity and upon its removal they return to normal, for others, even long after the stimulus has been removed there is still a persistent feeling of panic (APA, October 2002; Lader & Marks, 1971,).

 

Theories of Phobia

There are three (3) main theories of phobic disorder: the Behavioural, Biological or and Psychoanalytic. The Behavioural approach states that phobias are a learnt conditioned response to a particular element or entity. The can develop from repeated negative encounter with the stimuli in question (APA, October 2002). For example a small child who has only bad experiences with a cat has the potential to develop felinophobia. This is famously illustrated in John B. Watson’s successful fear conditioning in little Albert. Before the study’s commencement Albert readily played with a harmless white rabbit but after Watson repeated paired the rabbit with a loud sound--which children have a natural aversion to—he [Albert] began to associate the two, having violent phobic reactions to the harmless rabbit (Berk, 2001). Furthermore, behaviourist also argue the individuals can learn their fear through other people. Rycroft (1968) agrees, contending that particularly social phobia, seem to appear in persons who grew up with an alarming’ view of the outside world, one created by their smothering over protective parents (p. 85).

In the biological theory, the phobia is represented in the brain as a biological entity. Some combination of different chemicals and hormones can affect a part of the brain when the person experiences anxiety. Neuroscientists have found that first-generation relatives of people suffering from panic attacks and agoraphobia have high rates of the disorders themselves (d’Ansia, 1989).  Others have found the same phobias sometimes develop in identical twins raised separately (Eckert, Heston & Bouchard, 1981).

            The psychoanalytic theory maintains that the phobic object or situation has become a symbol for some repressed element or impulse in the patient himself, and that the phobias develops as a defense mechanism to ward of the threats that come with being confronted with that part of himself (Rycroft, 1968; Santrock, 2000).

 

Impact on Peoples Lives

            King Charles VIII of France, who ascended to the throne in 1483, was obsessed with the idea of being poisoned. As his phobia grew, the monarch ate so little that he died of malnutrition, circa 1498’ (Cool Quiz, November 2002). While most people with phobias live a relatively normal life there is an interesting smaller percentage that allows fear, much like King Charles, to have total control of their existence. Flight—avoidance of the aversive stimulus—is a typical defense of phobic persons (Rycroft, 1968), but some persons take this defense to the extreme, allow the fear to promote and perpetuate their own ill health. According to a 1999 John Hopkins study many persons who should have been seeing a heath care professional failed to do so because of some fear or another.

            For some, agoraphobics and social phobics in particular, the world beyond their home is so terrifying that they have ceased to venture outside. Contact with the outside is usually established via secondary means, such as the phone.

 

Treatment

            Clomipramine is a chlorinated tricyclic drug that is used to treat phobic anxiety states.  It is usually given orally to patients with predominantly agoraphobic symptoms (“the agoraphobic syndrome), who have proved resistant to phenelzine and, anxiolytic drugs, supportive psychotherapy, and desensitisation. A potential side effect is Postural hypertension. Nevertheless, agoraphobics tend to be resistant to this side effect (Harding et al, 1973).  Tranquillizers and beta blockers are also used to treat phobias. As phobias may cause a patient’s blood pressure to rise, the beta blockers work by decreasing the increased blood pressure. It should be noted that the abovementioned drug therapies can only be used to successfully treat agoraphobia and social phobia. Specific phobias are such that drug therapy is rendered ineffective.

Treatment of specific phobias requires non-drug, behaviour therapy. These most recognised methods are extinction and systematic desensitisation.

Extinction comes in two forms: Vicarious Extinction and Participant Modelling.  Vicarious Extinction requires only that the patient or phobic individual observe a model deal with the fear prompting situation without experiencing any of the aversive consequences. Through the vicarious interaction the patient learns that it is okay to perform the fear-evoking behaviour.

Extinction via participant modelling is the event in which the patient is exposed to the stimulus that cause the reaction of the anxiety without the presence of the actual thing which is response for the conditioning of this behaviour. Case in point, someone who has been in a car accident and afterwards refused to get behind the wheel of another vehicle. Every time the person attempts to do this fear response is produced. The therapist would first model the behaviour by placing himself behind the wheel, showing the patient that there is nothing to fear. Secondly, the therapist and the patient together go behind the wheel until finally the patient is performing the behaviour alone. The patient is then required to continually place himself behind the steering wheel for extended periods, in an attempt to show the person that they need not be anxious when driving, this flooding reinforces the fact that an accident is not always the result. This method works by separating the stimulus and the actual conditions that produce such behaviour.

The second method is the previously mentioned systematic desensitisation.  Because of its hierarchical anxiety structure it lends itself readily to the treatment of phobia. This method employs relaxation as a new emotion and as Carver and Scheier indicate, if the new emotion is contrary to the fear, it will gradually come to predominate over the fear.


Caribbean Perspective

In the Caribbean, anxiety is seen as a part of everyday life. This supports Shand and McDougall’s previously mentioned perspective.  Regardless, the extreme cases of anxiety in the region are not treated lightly.  The most common forms of anxiety found in the Caribbean are phobias and panic disorders.  As the paper focuses mainly on phobias and anxiety in general then so will this discussion.

            A Vincentian was asked what she thought was the most common phobia displayed in St. Vincent.  The answer was lizards.  We know for sure that in Jamaica this is also common especially among the women.  From a personal experience, a woman was seen running out of her house screaming because she saw a lizard in her room.  She would not have re-entered her home if the lizard were not removed.  When someone finally went to remove the lizard, thinking it was a large one; the person saw instead a “baby” lizard.  When the woman was asked why she was so scared, her reply was “it makes my skin crawl”.

            “Creepy crawly things” is the most common phrase of description given for the reason behind a phobia.  This is not to say that the stimuli for all phobias are creepy crawly things but that they represent a large proportion in the Caribbean.  Examples of creepy crawl things would be lizards, spiders, snakes, worms, and snails.  It is believed that, from among these, men are usually afraid of spiders and snakes.  However, it is clear that they do not regard it as seriously as women and may even joke it among themselves.

            Other common phobias found in the Caribbean are heights and flying. Personally, in September of 1996 I went to school to find out that my class is on the first floor.  For me there was no venturing near the railings for two whole weeks. But after a while I forget about it and even began sitting on the railings.  In the Caribbean it is not common for us to have therapy sessions for this kind of phobia and I think we are at a greater loss because of this.

As we do not have a choice on the location of our classes or offices, we have overcome our fear of heights.  This usually occurs after repeated exposure of the fear.  That is each day you venture closer and closer to the railing or window until you forget your fear because you have become familiar, thus, comfortable with your surroundings.  What is so surprising however is that this seems innate to us hence; we do not have to be taught.  Nevertheless, if we are placed in a new, unfamiliar situation we forget everything and our fear of heights returns.

Flying is a different case however, as is it possible to completely avoid it. Flying is associated with heights hence; we fear how far above the ground the plane is, the higher up the harder the fall. It is not easy to get over the fear of flying as it is for heights.  One reason is that it would be too expensive to fly regularly just to familiarise ourselves with the process. West Indians usually treat this phobia by never getting on a plane or if we have to, we request seating far away from the window and take deep breaths, continuously.

On the other hand, based on medical perspectives, anxiety disorders are significantly less common among African Caribbeans.  However, it is found that West Indians are more likely to seek additional help from non-medical sources.  Nevertheless, in Jamaica it was found that younger patients (<40 yrs) and more educated patients (secondary and tertiary) had a significantly high fear of upcoming operations.  The most common fears were those of a morbid nature (e.g. death on the operating table) (McGaw et al, 1988).  Furthermore, in an analysis of telephone calls and letters from 529 clients to a live radio psychiatric programme held weekly on a Jamaica Boardcasting Corporation programmes between March 1980 and January 1984 gave the following results.  It found that mainly single unemployed domestic helpers predominantly of urban location had the most common complaint of anxiety.  These women were therefore referred to primary health-care clinic services, and social agencies by the psychiatrists (Hickling, 1998).  Also in Jamaica it was found that high levels of anxiety affected academic performance, especially the grades of biochemistry students at the University of the West Indies, Mona (Pottinger, 1985).

 

 

 

 

 


Conclusion

 

 

            Anxiety is the feeling of uneasiness and phobias are and extreme form of anxiety in which uneasiness is triggered by particular stimuli.  Anxiety and phobias is by no means a modern mental disorder and as such time has allowed Man to devise many way and means of treating them. Such treatments are divided into non-drug or behaviour and drug therapies. Behavioural therapies such as Systematic Desensitisation and Extinction work wonderfully for anxiety as well as phobias. However, for Generalised Anxiety, behavioural method is enormously ineffective and as such drug therapy becomes the only option. Furthermore, while drug therapy is applicable to all anxieties and most phobias, it is absolutely highly unsuccessful in treating specific phobias. In these cases behavioural methods are the only options.

            Drug treatment is a last resort. Only when all behavioural avenues have been exhausted (if there was an option), should drugs be considered. This is because anxiety drugs can be very addictive and the potential of creating another problem is high. This requires that physicians keep close watch on their patients’ progress and ensure maximum effectiveness.

            With respect to the Caribbean, studies have shown that Afro-West Indians have lower anxiety rates than other groups in the region. Additionally, they have indicated that anxiety and phobias are considered an inherently natural part of life, so much so that we are far less likely, than other regions, to seek treatment for the disorders. 


References

 

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Psychology. United States of America: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.  

Berk, L. (2001). Development through the lifespan. Needham Heights, Massachusetts: 

Allyn and Bacon.

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Phobia List


A
Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or bathing.
Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the insects 
                               that cause itching.
Acerophobia- Fear of sourness.
Achluophobia- Fear of darkness.
Acousticophobia- Fear of noise.
Acrophobia- Fear of heights.
Aerophobia- Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious 
                               substances.
Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.
Agateophobia- Fear of insanity.
Agliophobia- Fear of pain.
Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public 
                               places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place.
Agraphobia- Fear of sexual abuse.
Agyrophobia- Fear of streets or crossing the street.
Aichmophobia- Fear of needles or pointed objects.
Alektorophobia- Fear of chickens.
Algophobia- Fear of pain.
Alliumphobia- Fear of garlic.
Allodoxaphobia- Fear of opinions.
Amaxophobia-Fear of riding in a car.
Ambulophobia-Fear of walking.
Amnesiphobia- Fear of amnesia.
Anablephobia- Fear of looking up.
Ancraophobia or Anemophobia- Fear of wind.
Androphobia- Fear of men.
Angrophobia - Fear of anger or of becoming angry.
Ankylophobia- Fear of immobility of a joint.
Anthrophobia or Anthophobia- Fear of flowers.
Anthropophobia- Fear of people or society.
Antlophobia- Fear of floods.
Anuptaphobia- Fear of staying single.
Aphenphosmphobia- Fear of being touched. (Haphephobia)
Apiphobia- Fear of bees.
Apotemnophobia- Fear of persons with amputations.
Arachnephobia or Arachnophobia- Fear of spiders.
Arithmophobia- Fear of numbers.
Arsonphobia- Fear of fire.
Asthenophobia- Fear of fainting or weakness.
Astraphobia or Astrapophobia- Fear of thunder and lightning.
Atelophobia- Fear of imperfection.
Atephobia- Fear of ruin or ruins.
Athazagoraphobia- Fear of being forgotton or  ignored or forgetting.
Atychiphobia- Fear of failure.
Aurophobia- Fear of gold.
Autodysomophobia- Fear of one that has a vile odor.
 
Automatonophobia- Fear of ventriloquist's dummies, animatronic creatures, wax statues - anything that falsly represents asentient being.
Automysophobia- Fear of being dirty.
Autophobia- Fear of being alone or of oneself.
Aviophobia or Aviatophobia- Fear of flying.
 
 
B
Bacillophobia- Fear of microbes.
Bacteriophobia- Fear of bacteria.
Ballistophobia- Fear of missiles or bullets.
Bathmophobia- Fear of stairs or steep slopes.
Bathophobia- Fear of depth.
Batophobia- Fear being close to high buildings.
Batrachophobia- Fear of amphibians, such as frogs, newts, 
                               salamanders, etc.
Bibliophobia- Fear of books.
Blennophobia- Fear of slime.
Botanophobia- Fear of plants.
Bromidrosiphobia or Bromidrophobia- Fear of body smells.
Bufonophobia- Fear of toads.
 
 
                               C
Cacophobia- Fear of ugliness.
Cainophobia or Cainotophobia- Fear of newness, novelty.
Caligynephobia- Fear of beautiful women.
Cancerophobia or Carcinophobia- Fear of cancer.
Cardiophobia- Fear of the heart.
Carnophobia- Fear of meat.
Catapedaphobia- Fear of jumping from high and low places.
Cathisophobia- Fear of sitting.
Catoptrophobia- Fear of mirrors.
Cenophobia or Centophobia- Fear of new things or ideas.
Chaetophobia- Fear of hair.
Cheimaphobia or Cheimatophobia- Fear of cold.
Chemophobia- Fear of chemicals or working with chemicals.
Chionophobia- Fear of snow.
Chiraptophobia- Fear of being touched.
Chirophobia- Fear of hands.
Cholerophobia- Fear of anger or the fear of cholera.
Chorophobia- Fear of dancing.
Chrometophobia or Chrematophobia- Fear of money.
Chromophobia or Chromatophobia- Fear of colors.
Chronomentrophobia- Fear of clocks.
Cibophobia or Sitophobia or Sitiophobia- Fear of food.
Claustrophobia- Fear of confined spaces.
Cleptophobia- Fear of stealing.
Climacophobia- Fear of stairs, climbing or of falling downstairs.
Clinophobia- Fear of going to bed.
Cnidophobia- Fear of stings.
Coimetrophobia- Fear of cemeteries.
Coitophobia- Fear of coitus.
Contreltophobia- Fear of sexual abuse.
Coprastasophobia- Fear of constipation.
Coprophobia- Fear of feces.
Coulrophobia- Fear of clowns.
Counterphobia- The preference by a phobic for fearful 
                               situations.
Cremnophobia- Fear of precipices.
Cryophobia- Fear of extreme cold, ice or frost.
Crystallophobia- Fear of crystals or glass.
Cyberphobia- Fear of computers or working on a computer.
Cyclophobia- Fear of bicycles.
Cymophobia- Fear of waves or wave like motions.
Cynophobia- Fear of dogs or rabies.
Cypridophobia, Cypriphobia, Cyprianophobia, or 
Cyprinophobia - Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.
 
 
                               D
Decidophobia- Fear of making decisions.
Defecaloesiophobia- Fear of painful bowels movements.
Dementophobia- Fear of insanity.
Demonophobia or Daemonophobia- Fear of demons.
Dendrophobia- Fear of trees.
Dentophobia- Fear of dentists.
Dermatophobia- Fear of skin lesions.
Diabetophobia- Fear of diabetes.
Didaskaleinophobia- Fear of going to school.
Dikephobia- Fear of justice.
Dinophobia- Fear of dizziness or whirlpools.
Diplophobia- Fear of double vision.
Dipsophobia- Fear of drinking.
Dishabiliophobia- Fear of undressing in front of someone.
Domatophobia or Oikophobia- Fear of houses or being in a 
                               house.
Doraphobia- Fear of fur or skins of animals.
Dromophobia- Fear of crossing streets.
Dysmorphophobia- Fear of deformity.
Dystychiphobia- Fear of accidents.
 
 
E
Ecclesiophobia- Fear of church.
Eisoptrophobia- Fear of mirrors or of seeing oneself in a mirror.
Electrophobia- Fear of electricity.
Eleutherophobia- Fear of freedom.
Enosiophobia or Enissophobia- Fear of having committed an 
                               unpardonable sin or of criticism.
Entomophobia- Fear of insects.
Eosophobia- Fear of dawn or daylight.
Ephebiphobia- Fear of teenagers.
Epistaxiophobia- Fear of nosebleeds.
Epistemophobia- Fear of knowledge.
Equinophobia- Fear of horses.
Eremophobia- Fear of being oneself or of lonliness.
Ereuthrophobia- Fear of blushing.
Ergasiophobia- 1) Fear of work or functioning. 2) 
                               Surgeon's fear of  operating.
Ergophobia- Fear of work.
Erotophobia- Fear of sexual love or sexual questions.
Euphobia- Fear of hearing good news.
Eurotophobia- Fear of female genitalia.
Erythrophobia, Erytophobia or Ereuthophobia- 1) 
                               Fear of redlights. 2) Blushing. 3) Red.
 
 
                               F
Febriphobia, Fibriphobia or Fibriophobia- Fear of fever.
Felinophobia (Ailurophobia), - Fear of cats.
Frigophobia- Fear of cold, cold things.
 
 
                               G
Gamophobia- Fear of marriage.
Geliophobia- Fear of laughter.
Geniophobia- Fear of chins.
Genophobia- Fear of sex.
Genuphobia- Fear of knees.
Gephyrophobia, Gephydrophobia, or Gephysrophobia- 
                               Fear of crossing bridges.
Gerascophobia- Fear of growing old.
Gerontophobia- Fear of old people or of growing old.
Glossophobia- Fear of speaking in public or of trying to peak.
Gnosiophobia- Fear of knowledge.
Graphophobia- Fear of writing or handwriting.
Gymnophobia- Fear of nudity.
Gynephobia or Gynophobia- Fear of women.
 
 
H
Hadephobia- Fear of hell.
Hagiophobia- Fear of saints or holy things.
Hamartophobia- Fear of sinning.
Haphephobia or Haptephobia- Fear of being touched.
Harpaxophobia- Fear of being robbed.
Hedonophobia- Fear of feeling pleasure.
Heliophobia- Fear of the sun.
Helminthophobia- Fear of being infested with worms.
Hemophobia or Hemaphobia or Hematophobia- Fear of blood.
Heresyphobia or Hereiophobia- Fear of challenges 
                               to official doctrine or of radical deviation.
Herpetophobia- Fear of reptiles or creepy, crawly things.
Heterophobia- Fear of the opposite sex. (Sexophobia)
Hierophobia- Fear of priests or sacred things.
Hippophobia- Fear of horses.
Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia- Fear of long words.
Hobophobia- Fear of the homeless or beggars.
Hodophobia- Fear of road travel.
Hormephobia- Fear of shock.
Homichlophobia- Fear of fog.
Homilophobia- Fear of sermons.
Hominophobia- Fear of men.
Homophobia- Fear of sameness, monotony or of 
                               homosexuality or of becoming homosexual.
Hoplophobia- Fear of firearms.
Hydrargyophobia- Fear of mercurial medicines.
Hydrophobia- Fear of water or of rabies.
Hydrophobophobia- Fear of rabies.
Hyelophobia or Hyalophobia- Fear of glass.
Hygrophobia- Fear of liquids, dampness, or moisture.
Hylephobia- Fear of materialism or the fear of epilepsy.
Hylophobia- Fear of forests.
Hypengyophobia or Hypegiaphobia- Fear of responsibility.
Hypnophobia- Fear of sleep or of being hypnotized.
Hypsiphobia- Fear of height.
 
 
I
Iatrophobia- Fear of going to the doctor or of doctors.
Ichthyophobia- Fear of fish.
Ideophobia- Fear of ideas.
Illyngophobia- Fear of vertigo or feeling dizzy when looking 
                               down.
Iophobia- Fear of poison.
Insectophobia - Fear of insects.
Isolophobia- Fear of solitude, being alone.
Isopterophobia- Fear of termites, insects that eat wood.
Ithyphallophobia- Fear of seeing, thinking about or having 
                               an erect penis.
 
 
K
Kakorrhaphiophobia- Fear of failure or defeat.
Kathisophobia- Fear of sitting down.
Kenophobia- Fear of voids or empty spaces.
Kinetophobia or Kinesophobia- Fear of movement or motion.
Kleptophobia- Fear of stealing.
Koinoniphobia- Fear of rooms.
Kolpophobia- Fear of genitals, particularly female.
Kopophobia- Fear of fatigue.
Koniophobia- Fear of dust. (Amathophobia)
Kyphophobia- Fear of stooping.
 
 
L
Lachanophobia- Fear of vegetables.
Laliophobia or Lalophobia- Fear of speaking.
Leprophobia or Lepraphobia- Fear of leprosy.
Leukophobia- Fear of the color white.
Ligyrophobia- Fear of loud noises.
Lilapsophobia- Fear of tornadoes and hurricanes.
Limnophobia- Fear of lakes.
Linonophobia- Fear of string.
Liticaphobia- Fear of lawsuits.
Lockiophobia- Fear of childbirth.
Logizomechanophobia- Fear of computers.
Logophobia- Fear of words.
Luiphobia- Fear of lues, syphillis.
Lutraphobia- Fear of otters.
Lygophobia- Fear of darkness.
 
 
M
Macrophobia- Fear of long waits.
Mageirocophobia- Fear of cooking.
Maieusiophobia- Fear of childbirth.
Malaxophobia- Fear of love play. (Sarmassophobia)
Maniaphobia- Fear of insanity.
Mastigophobia- Fear of punishment.
Mechanophobia